സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ; ബുദ്ധമത പാരമ്പര്യപ്രകാരം ലോക രക്ഷാര്‍ത്ഥം ഇനി അവതരിക്കാനിരിക്കുന്ന ബുദ്ധന്‍ ആര് ?

First Published Dec 29, 2020, 7:48 PM IST


ന്ത്യന്‍ ബ്യൂറോക്രസിയുടെ ഏറ്റവും ഉയര്‍ന്ന പദവിയിലേക്കുള്ള പരീക്ഷയാണ് സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ. ഇന്ത്യന്‍ അഡ്മിനിസ്ട്രേറ്റീവ് സര്‍വ്വീസ് (ഐഎഎസ്), ഇന്ത്യന്‍ പൊലീസ് സര്‍വ്വീസ് (ഐപിഎസ്), ഇന്ത്യന്‍ ഫോറിന്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് (ഐഎഫ്എസ്) എന്നീ ഗ്ലാമര്‍ പദവികള്‍ മുതല്‍ നിരവധി വകുപ്പുകളിലേ ക്ലാസ് വണ്‍ ഉദ്യോഗങ്ങളിലേക്കും ചില ഗ്രൂപ്പ് ബി തസ്തികകളിലേക്കുമുള്ള തെരഞ്ഞെടുപ്പും സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷയെ അടിസ്ഥാനമാക്കിയാണ് നടക്കുന്നത്. അതുകൊണ്ട് തന്നെ കടുത്ത മത്സരം നടക്കുന്ന പരീക്ഷകളിലൊന്നാണ് സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ. പരീക്ഷയ്ക്കിറങ്ങും മുമ്പ് നിരന്തരമുള്ള തയ്യാറെടുപ്പ് ആവശ്യമാണ്. ഫോര്‍ച്ച്യൂണ്‍ അക്കാദമിയും ഏഷ്യാനെറ്റ് ഓണ്‍ലൈനും ചേര്‍ന്നൊരുക്കുന്ന സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷാ ചോദ്യോത്തരങ്ങളുടെ പതിനൊന്നാമത്തെ ചോദ്യാവലിയാണിത്. സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസില്‍ മാത്രമല്ല, കേരള സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷയെന്നറിയപ്പെടുന്ന കേരള അഡ്മിനിസ്ട്രേറ്റ് സര്‍വ്വീസ് (KAS) പരീക്ഷയ്ക്കുള്ള പഠനത്തിനും ഈ ചോദ്യോത്തരങ്ങള്‍ നിങ്ങളെ സഹായിക്കും. അതെ, ചെറിയ ചില കാല്‍വെപ്പുകള്‍ വിലയ മുന്നേറ്റങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് കാരണമാകാം. വരൂ, നമ്മുക്കൊന്നിച്ച് മുന്നേറാം.

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (a)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Statement a is CORRECT:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<div class="O2" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The Vaikom Satyagraha broke out in Trivandrum, Kerala, in 1924.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O2" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">It was led by K. P. Kesava Menon <span style="font-weight:bold">demanding the throwing open of Hindu temples and temple roads to the untouchables</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O2" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">It was a protest for securing entry of lower castes inside Mahadeva Temple in the town.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><strong>Vaikom Satyagraha</strong></p>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">It was a movement in Travancore (modern Kerala) for temple entry for the depressed classes.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">It took place near the Shiva temple at Vaikom during 1924-25.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">At that time low caste Hindus were not allowed to enter into the temples or even walk on the roads that led to the temples.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The movement started against these social evils.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Even Mahatma Gandhi supported this movement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Source: </span>India’s struggle for Independence, Bipan Chandra, chapter 18.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

Answer: (a)

Statement a is CORRECT:

The Vaikom Satyagraha broke out in Trivandrum, Kerala, in 1924.
It was led by K. P. Kesava Menon demanding the throwing open of Hindu temples and temple roads to the untouchables
It was a protest for securing entry of lower castes inside Mahadeva Temple in the town.

Vaikom Satyagraha

It was a movement in Travancore (modern Kerala) for temple entry for the depressed classes.
It took place near the Shiva temple at Vaikom during 1924-25.
At that time low caste Hindus were not allowed to enter into the temples or even walk on the roads that led to the temples.
The movement started against these social evils.
Even Mahatma Gandhi supported this movement.

Source: India’s struggle for Independence, Bipan Chandra, chapter 18.

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (b)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Statement 1 is INCORRECT:</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">ü</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The Sanyasi revolt started against the colonial government by ascetics who travelled from Northern India to various religious places and shrines in Bengal and collected alms and contributions from local landlords during their religious travel</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">ü</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">After the British acquired revenue rights in Bengal, many zamindars found it difficult to pay alms to the Sanyasis owing to the high tax rate required to be given to the government</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">ü</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The British also considered the sanyasis looters and imposed restrictions on them.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">ü</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Hence, revolt broke out.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Statement 2 is CORRECT: </span>The novel <span style="font-weight:bold">Anandamath, written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee </span>deals with the Sanyasi Rebellion. It was <span style="font-weight:bold">banned by the British.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><strong>Sanyasi Rebellion</strong></p>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">ü</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The sanyasi revolt broke out in <span style="font-weight:bold">Bengal </span>in between <span style="font-weight:bold">1770-1820</span>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">ü</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The sanyasis collected alms and contributions from landlords on their way to various pilgrimage sites in Bengal.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">ü</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">After the British acquired revenue rights in Bengal, owing to steep tax rates and related issues, landlords failed to meet demands of the sanyasis.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">ü</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The Sanyasis <span style="font-weight:bold">were considered by the British as looters and imposed restrictions on them from visiting holy places. Thus, rebellion broke out in 18th century.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">ü</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The novel <span style="font-weight:bold">Anandamath </span>by <span style="font-weight:bold">Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was set in the backdrop of this rebellion; this book was banned by the British.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Source: </span>Modern Indian History, Sonali Bansal &amp; Snehil Tripathi, chapter 4</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

Answer: (b)

Statement 1 is INCORRECT:
üThe Sanyasi revolt started against the colonial government by ascetics who travelled from Northern India to various religious places and shrines in Bengal and collected alms and contributions from local landlords during their religious travel
üAfter the British acquired revenue rights in Bengal, many zamindars found it difficult to pay alms to the Sanyasis owing to the high tax rate required to be given to the government
üThe British also considered the sanyasis looters and imposed restrictions on them.
üHence, revolt broke out.
Statement 2 is CORRECT: The novel Anandamath, written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee deals with the Sanyasi Rebellion. It was banned by the British.

Sanyasi Rebellion

üThe sanyasi revolt broke out in Bengal in between 1770-1820.
üThe sanyasis collected alms and contributions from landlords on their way to various pilgrimage sites in Bengal.
üAfter the British acquired revenue rights in Bengal, owing to steep tax rates and related issues, landlords failed to meet demands of the sanyasis.
üThe Sanyasis were considered by the British as looters and imposed restrictions on them from visiting holy places. Thus, rebellion broke out in 18th century.
üThe novel Anandamath by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was set in the backdrop of this rebellion; this book was banned by the British.

Source: Modern Indian History, Sonali Bansal & Snehil Tripathi, chapter 4

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (c)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<div style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">According to Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who will appear on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor to the present Buddha, Gautama Buddha (also known as Śākyamuni Buddha).</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

Answer: (c)

According to Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who will appear on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor to the present Buddha, Gautama Buddha (also known as Śākyamuni Buddha).

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer : (c)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The&nbsp;Lotus Temple<a href="https://www.india.com/travel/delhi-ncr/places-to-visit/temples-lotus-temple/">&nbsp;</a>also known as the Bahai House of Worship or Bahai Mashriqul-Adhkar Temple is one of the best architectural marvels in the country in modern times. The white marble structure is also called the Taj Mahal of the 20th&nbsp;century but it is so much more than just a splendid piece of architecture. It is a place where several visitors from all across the globe come for peace, meditation, prayers and study.&nbsp;</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:104px; text-indent:-1.08in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Source: </span><a href="http://www.google.com/">https://www.india.com/travel/articles/5-interesting-facts-about-the-bahai-lotus-temple-in-delhi-that-you-must-know-3232502/</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

Answer : (c)

The Lotus Temple also known as the Bahai House of Worship or Bahai Mashriqul-Adhkar Temple is one of the best architectural marvels in the country in modern times. The white marble structure is also called the Taj Mahal of the 20th century but it is so much more than just a splendid piece of architecture. It is a place where several visitors from all across the globe come for peace, meditation, prayers and study. 

Source: https://www.india.com/travel/articles/5-interesting-facts-about-the-bahai-lotus-temple-in-delhi-that-you-must-know-3232502/

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (d)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<div style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Leaf modifications of Desert Plant to inhibit water loss for adaptations and survival of Desert Plant-</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Wax coatings on leaves prevent water loss through evaporation, which in the hot desert can cause loss of water from both the surface and the inside of leaves. Leaves are also smaller on desert plants, further reducing the possibility for water loss.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Deciduous plants in desert ecosystems have adapted through the activity of their leaves. Leaves on these plants are typically smaller and coated with wax to prevent evaporation.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Plants such as aloes are equipped with fleshy leaves that contain much of their water supply. Because of their moist inner bodies, these plants are called succulents. They typically feel spongy and when cut open are filled with a pulpy flesh, protected by a waxy outer layer.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Many plants in the desert conserve water by not having any leaves at all. Cacti are the most prolific of this plant type. Many cacti have spines in place of leaves, which conduct photosynthesis and catch dew when the climate is right. These small structures also reflect light, further reducing water loss. During heavy rains, cacti will grow temporary root systems and absorb water. They will then shed the roots when the ground has dried.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

Answer: (d)

Leaf modifications of Desert Plant to inhibit water loss for adaptations and survival of Desert Plant-
Wax coatings on leaves prevent water loss through evaporation, which in the hot desert can cause loss of water from both the surface and the inside of leaves. Leaves are also smaller on desert plants, further reducing the possibility for water loss.
Deciduous plants in desert ecosystems have adapted through the activity of their leaves. Leaves on these plants are typically smaller and coated with wax to prevent evaporation.
Plants such as aloes are equipped with fleshy leaves that contain much of their water supply. Because of their moist inner bodies, these plants are called succulents. They typically feel spongy and when cut open are filled with a pulpy flesh, protected by a waxy outer layer.
Many plants in the desert conserve water by not having any leaves at all. Cacti are the most prolific of this plant type. Many cacti have spines in place of leaves, which conduct photosynthesis and catch dew when the climate is right. These small structures also reflect light, further reducing water loss. During heavy rains, cacti will grow temporary root systems and absorb water. They will then shed the roots when the ground has dried.

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (d)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Option (d) is CORRECT</span>. Out of 37 Ramsar wetlands in India now, 20 are located in three states and two UTs in North India, 13 of them are situated in just two states of Uttar Pradesh (7) and Punjab (6), where the large states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu have just one Ramsar site each.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Major states like <span style="font-weight:bold">Karnataka, Telangana, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and several states of North East India have none</span>. Only one Ramsar site of India, namely the Upper Ganga River (Brijghat to Narora Stretch) is a river.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">In terms of size the four wetlands in East India cover 6170 sq. km area which is about seven times more than the areas under 20 Ramsar sites of North India. The largest Ramsar sites are Sundarbans (4230 sq. km) followed by Chilika (1165 sq. km).</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The 10 new ones are Nandur</span></span> <span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Madhameshwar, a first for Maharashtra; Keshopur-Miani, Beas Conservation Reserve and Nangal in Punjab; and Nawabganj, Parvati Agra, Saman, Samaspur, Sandi and Sarsai</span></span> <span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Nawar in Uttar Pradesh.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The other Ramsar sites are in Rajasthan, Kerala, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Manipur, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Tripura.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<p style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:123px; text-indent:-1.28in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Source:</span><a href="https://rsis.ramsar.org/sites/default/files/rsiswp_search/exports/Ramsar-Sites-">https://rsis.ramsar.org/sites/default/files/rsiswp_search/exports/Ramsar-Sites-</a></span></span> <span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><a href="https://rsis.ramsar.org/sites/default/files/rsiswp_search/exports/Ramsar-Sites-annotated-summary-India.pdf?1588747705">annotated-summary-India.pdf?1588747705</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

Answer: (d)

Option (d) is CORRECT. Out of 37 Ramsar wetlands in India now, 20 are located in three states and two UTs in North India, 13 of them are situated in just two states of Uttar Pradesh (7) and Punjab (6), where the large states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu have just one Ramsar site each.
Major states like Karnataka, Telangana, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and several states of North East India have none. Only one Ramsar site of India, namely the Upper Ganga River (Brijghat to Narora Stretch) is a river.
In terms of size the four wetlands in East India cover 6170 sq. km area which is about seven times more than the areas under 20 Ramsar sites of North India. The largest Ramsar sites are Sundarbans (4230 sq. km) followed by Chilika (1165 sq. km).
The 10 new ones are Nandur Madhameshwar, a first for Maharashtra; Keshopur-Miani, Beas Conservation Reserve and Nangal in Punjab; and Nawabganj, Parvati Agra, Saman, Samaspur, Sandi and Sarsai Nawar in Uttar Pradesh.
The other Ramsar sites are in Rajasthan, Kerala, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Manipur, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Tripura.

    Source:https://rsis.ramsar.org/sites/default/files/rsiswp_search/exports/Ramsar-Sites- annotated-summary-India.pdf?1588747705

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (a)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Option (a) is CORRECT</span>. Restriction enzymes are DNA-cutting enzymes. Each enzyme recognizes one or a few target sequences and cuts DNA at or near those sequences.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">DNA ligase is a DNA-joining enzyme. If two pieces of DNA have matching ends, ligase can link them to form a single, unbroken molecule of DNA.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">In DNA cloning, restriction enzymes and DNA ligase are used to insert genes and other pieces of DNA into plasmids.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<p style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Source: </span><a href="https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/biotech-dna-technology/dna-cloning-tutorial/a/restriction-enzymes-dna-ligase">https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/biotech-dna-</a></span></span> <span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><a href="https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/biotech-dna-technology/dna-cloning-tutorial/a/restriction-enzymes-dna-ligase">technology/dna-cloning-tutorial/a/restriction-enzymes-dna-ligase</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

Answer: (a)

Option (a) is CORRECT. Restriction enzymes are DNA-cutting enzymes. Each enzyme recognizes one or a few target sequences and cuts DNA at or near those sequences.
DNA ligase is a DNA-joining enzyme. If two pieces of DNA have matching ends, ligase can link them to form a single, unbroken molecule of DNA.
In DNA cloning, restriction enzymes and DNA ligase are used to insert genes and other pieces of DNA into plasmids.

Source: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/biotech-dna- technology/dna-cloning-tutorial/a/restriction-enzymes-dna-ligase

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (c)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Mahe is the smallest district in India. It has an area of 9 sq. km. Mahe is geographically located in the state of Kerala, where as administratively it comes under the control of Union Territory of Pondicherry. Mahe has the official name of Mayyazhi in the local Malayalam language. Mahe has a population of about 36,000 according to the 2001 census. The population density of the town is 4091 per sq. km. Males constitute 47% of the population and females 53%. Mahe has an average literacy rate of 85%. Mahe has two members in the Pondicherry Legislative Assembly, representing Mahe and Palloor.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Source: </span><a href="http://www.google.com/">https://censusindia.gov.in/census_data_2001/india_at_glance/area.aspx</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

Answer: (c)

Mahe is the smallest district in India. It has an area of 9 sq. km. Mahe is geographically located in the state of Kerala, where as administratively it comes under the control of Union Territory of Pondicherry. Mahe has the official name of Mayyazhi in the local Malayalam language. Mahe has a population of about 36,000 according to the 2001 census. The population density of the town is 4091 per sq. km. Males constitute 47% of the population and females 53%. Mahe has an average literacy rate of 85%. Mahe has two members in the Pondicherry Legislative Assembly, representing Mahe and Palloor.

Source: https://censusindia.gov.in/census_data_2001/india_at_glance/area.aspx

<p><span style="font-weight: bold; color: black; font-family: &quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;; font-size: 14px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0in;">Answer: (c)</span></p>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Statement 1 is CORRECT</span>. Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthaan Mahabhiyan (PM-KUSUM) was launched with the objective of providing financial and water security to farmers.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Statement 2 is CORRECT</span>. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has launched the PM-KUSUM Scheme for farmers for installation of solar pumps and grid connected solar and other renewable power plants in the country.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The scheme aims to add solar and other renewable capacity of 25,750 MW by 2022 with total central financial support of Rs. 34,422 Crore including service charges to the implementing agencies.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<p style="margin-top:7px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify">&nbsp;</p>

<p style="margin-top:7px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The Scheme consists of three components:</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Component A: 10,000 MW of Decentralized Ground Mounted Grid Connected Renewable Power Plants of individual plant size up to 2 MW.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Component B: Installation of 17.50 lakh standalone Solar Powered Agriculture Pumps of individual pump capacity up to 7.5 HP.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O0" style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Wingdings">Ø</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Component C: Solarisation of 10 Lakh Grid-connected Agriculture Pumps of individual pump capacity up to 7.5 HP.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">&nbsp;&nbsp; Source: </span><a href="https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1565274">https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1565274</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

Answer: (c)

Statement 1 is CORRECT. Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthaan Mahabhiyan (PM-KUSUM) was launched with the objective of providing financial and water security to farmers.
Statement 2 is CORRECT. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has launched the PM-KUSUM Scheme for farmers for installation of solar pumps and grid connected solar and other renewable power plants in the country.
The scheme aims to add solar and other renewable capacity of 25,750 MW by 2022 with total central financial support of Rs. 34,422 Crore including service charges to the implementing agencies.

 

The Scheme consists of three components:

ØComponent A: 10,000 MW of Decentralized Ground Mounted Grid Connected Renewable Power Plants of individual plant size up to 2 MW.
ØComponent B: Installation of 17.50 lakh standalone Solar Powered Agriculture Pumps of individual pump capacity up to 7.5 HP.
ØComponent C: Solarisation of 10 Lakh Grid-connected Agriculture Pumps of individual pump capacity up to 7.5 HP.

   Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1565274

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (d)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<div style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">A growing list of human and environmental pressures threaten the world’s largest lakes, inhibiting their ability to supply water, drive economic activity, preserve biodiversity, and sustain communities.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The Aral Sea, once the fourth largest lake in the world, has been shrinking steadily since the 1960s.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

<div style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:24px; text-indent:-.25in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:14px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Lake Baikal, the biggest and oldest lake in the world, is home to approximately 2,500 species of plants and animals. It is drying up as the lake’s water levels continue to drop, according to the local natural resources ministry.</span></span></span></span></span></span></div>

Answer: (d)

A growing list of human and environmental pressures threaten the world’s largest lakes, inhibiting their ability to supply water, drive economic activity, preserve biodiversity, and sustain communities.
The Aral Sea, once the fourth largest lake in the world, has been shrinking steadily since the 1960s.
Lake Baikal, the biggest and oldest lake in the world, is home to approximately 2,500 species of plants and animals. It is drying up as the lake’s water levels continue to drop, according to the local natural resources ministry.