സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ; പഞ്ചായത്ത് രാജ് സംവിധാനത്തില്‍ എത്ര തസ്തികകളാണ് സ്ത്രീകള്‍ക്കായി നീക്കിവെച്ചത് ?

First Published Dec 22, 2020, 1:02 PM IST

ന്ത്യന്‍ ബ്യൂറോക്രസിയുടെ ഏറ്റവും ഉയര്‍ന്ന പദവിയിലേക്കുള്ള പരീക്ഷയാണ് സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ. ഇന്ത്യന്‍ അഡ്മിനിസ്ട്രേറ്റീവ് സര്‍വ്വീസ് (ഐഎഎസ്), ഇന്ത്യന്‍ പൊലീസ് സര്‍വ്വീസ് (ഐപിഎസ്), ഇന്ത്യന്‍ ഫോറിന്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് (ഐഎഫ്എസ്) എന്നീ ഗ്ലാമര്‍ പദവികള്‍ മുതല്‍ നിരവധി വകുപ്പുകളിലേ ക്ലാസ് വണ്‍ ഉദ്യോഗങ്ങളിലേക്കും ചില ഗ്രൂപ്പ് ബി തസ്തികകളിലേക്കുമുള്ള തെരഞ്ഞെടുപ്പും സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷയെ അടിസ്ഥാനമാക്കിയാണ് നടക്കുന്നത്. അതുകൊണ്ട് തന്നെ കടുത്ത മത്സരം നടക്കുന്ന പരീക്ഷകളിലൊന്നാണ് സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ. പരീക്ഷയ്ക്കിറങ്ങും മുമ്പ് നിരന്തരമുള്ള തയ്യാറെടുപ്പ് ആവശ്യമാണ്. ഫോര്‍ച്ച്യൂണ്‍ അക്കാദമിയും ഏഷ്യാനെറ്റ് ഓണ്‍ലൈനും ചേര്‍ന്നൊരുക്കുന്ന സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷാ ചോദ്യോത്തരങ്ങളുടെ പത്താമത്തെ ചോദ്യാവലിയാണിത്. സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസില്‍ മാത്രമല്ല, കേരള സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷയെന്നറിയപ്പെടുന്ന കേരള അഡ്മിനിസ്ട്രേറ്റ് സര്‍വ്വീസ് (KAS) പരീക്ഷയ്ക്കുള്ള പഠനത്തിനും ഈ ചോദ്യോത്തരങ്ങള്‍ നിങ്ങളെ സഹായിക്കും. അതെ, ചെറിയ ചില കാല്‍വെപ്പുകള്‍ വിലയ മുന്നേറ്റങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് കാരണമാകാം. വരൂ, നമ്മുക്കൊന്നിച്ച് മുന്നേറാം.

<p><strong>Answer: (a)</strong></p>

<p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; . E</strong>xplanation:&nbsp;The IRNSS is being developed parallel to the GAGAN (GPS Aided GEO Augmented Satellite Navigation) program, the ISRO SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System) version of an overlay system for GNSS signal corrections.<br />
<strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; . T</strong>he IRNSS system consists of a constellation of seven satellites and a supporting ground segment. Three of the satellites in the constellation will be placed in a geostationary orbit and the remaining four in a geosynchronous inclined orbit of 29º relative to the equatorial plane. Such an arrangement would mean all seven satellites would have continuous radio visibility with Indian control stations. It will cover the entire country and an area extending about 1,500 sq. km beyond its border, with a position accuracy better than 20m in all weather conditions.</p>

Answer: (a)

        . Explanation: The IRNSS is being developed parallel to the GAGAN (GPS Aided GEO Augmented Satellite Navigation) program, the ISRO SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System) version of an overlay system for GNSS signal corrections.
        . The IRNSS system consists of a constellation of seven satellites and a supporting ground segment. Three of the satellites in the constellation will be placed in a geostationary orbit and the remaining four in a geosynchronous inclined orbit of 29º relative to the equatorial plane. Such an arrangement would mean all seven satellites would have continuous radio visibility with Indian control stations. It will cover the entire country and an area extending about 1,500 sq. km beyond its border, with a position accuracy better than 20m in all weather conditions.

<p><strong>Answer: (d)</strong></p>

<p><strong>. W</strong>arabandi system of water distribution is followed for canal irrigation in many parts of India. It is observed that tail end fields receive less amount of water compared to fields situated at or near the head of water sources.<br />
.<strong> W</strong>arabandi is a rotational water allocational system which can fulfil the requirement of equality in canal irrigation.</p>

<p>Source – INDIA PEOPLE AND ECONOMY CLASS XII</p>

Answer: (d)

. Warabandi system of water distribution is followed for canal irrigation in many parts of India. It is observed that tail end fields receive less amount of water compared to fields situated at or near the head of water sources.
. Warabandi is a rotational water allocational system which can fulfil the requirement of equality in canal irrigation.

Source – INDIA PEOPLE AND ECONOMY CLASS XII

<p><br />
<strong>Answer: (d)</strong></p>

<p>Statement 1 is INCORRECT:</p>

<p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;. I</strong>t proposed the formation of an entirely Indian executive council, with the Governor General and commander- in-chief as the only British members.<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;<strong>. T</strong>he Governor General retained his veto power but he was not allowed to use it unnecessarily.</p>

<p><strong>Statement 2 is INCORRECT:</strong></p>

<p>&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>&nbsp;. T</strong>he Wavell plan could not succeed due to demand of veto power by MA Jinnah; that is Muslim League alone could choose the Muslim members of the executive Council.<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>&nbsp;. T</strong>he Muslim League wanted all Muslim members to be League nominees because it feared that since the aims of other minorities were the same as those of the Congress, this arrangement would reduce Muslim League to one third minority.</p>

<p><strong>Wavell Plan</strong></p>

<p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong> &nbsp;. I</strong>n June 1945, Churchill permitted Wavell-the previous commander-in-chief who had in 1943 replaced Linlithgow as the new viceroy-to start negotiations with the Indian leaders.<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong> &nbsp;. W</strong>avell convened a conference at Shimla to talk about the formation of an entirely Indian executive council, with the viceroy and commander- in-chief as the only British members. Caste Hindus and Muslims would have equal representation, while the Scheduled Castes would also be separately represented; and doors would be open for discussion of a new constitution.<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;<strong>. B</strong>ut the Shimla conference of 25 June-14 July 1945 crashed on the rock of Jinnah's demand for parity. He claimed for Muslim League an exclusive right to nominate all the Muslim members of the cabinet.<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong> &nbsp;. C</strong>ongress refused to accept it, for that would amount to an admission that Congress was a party only of the caste Hindus.</p>

<p><br />
Source: Modern Indian History, Sonali Bansal &amp; Snehil Tripathi, chapter 7.</p>


Answer: (d)

Statement 1 is INCORRECT:

    . It proposed the formation of an entirely Indian executive council, with the Governor General and commander- in-chief as the only British members.
    . The Governor General retained his veto power but he was not allowed to use it unnecessarily.

Statement 2 is INCORRECT:

    . The Wavell plan could not succeed due to demand of veto power by MA Jinnah; that is Muslim League alone could choose the Muslim members of the executive Council.
    . The Muslim League wanted all Muslim members to be League nominees because it feared that since the aims of other minorities were the same as those of the Congress, this arrangement would reduce Muslim League to one third minority.

Wavell Plan

    . In June 1945, Churchill permitted Wavell-the previous commander-in-chief who had in 1943 replaced Linlithgow as the new viceroy-to start negotiations with the Indian leaders.
    . Wavell convened a conference at Shimla to talk about the formation of an entirely Indian executive council, with the viceroy and commander- in-chief as the only British members. Caste Hindus and Muslims would have equal representation, while the Scheduled Castes would also be separately represented; and doors would be open for discussion of a new constitution.
    . But the Shimla conference of 25 June-14 July 1945 crashed on the rock of Jinnah's demand for parity. He claimed for Muslim League an exclusive right to nominate all the Muslim members of the cabinet.
    . Congress refused to accept it, for that would amount to an admission that Congress was a party only of the caste Hindus.


Source: Modern Indian History, Sonali Bansal & Snehil Tripathi, chapter 7.

<p><strong>Answer: (b)</strong></p>

<p>Internet of things is a seamless connected network system of embedded objects/ devices, with identifiers, in which communication without any human intervention is possible using standard and interoperable communication protocols. With this technology, each and every device that we use in daily life (including refrigerators, cars and even tooth brush) can be made intelligent and smart by using device specific operating systems and connectivity to the Internet.<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Answer: (b)

Internet of things is a seamless connected network system of embedded objects/ devices, with identifiers, in which communication without any human intervention is possible using standard and interoperable communication protocols. With this technology, each and every device that we use in daily life (including refrigerators, cars and even tooth brush) can be made intelligent and smart by using device specific operating systems and connectivity to the Internet.
 

<p><br />
<strong>Answer: (a)</strong></p>

<p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;. T</strong>he Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri is “the most iconic architectural accomplishment of Akbar’s reign. It incorporates almost all the essential features of Akbar’s architectural traditions: red sandstone, stone carvings, relief by inserting white marble, etc.” The construction of the Buland Darwaza was inspired by Timurid architecture. Along with Humayun’s Tomb, its monumentality reflects its Central Asian origins.<br />
<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;. A</strong>saf-ud-Daula’s rule saw a devastating famine, which created an economic crisis. The residents of Awadh were self-respecting people, so instead of handing out dole, the Nawab started a food-for-work programme. The famous Asafi Imambara, or Bara Imambara, of Lucknow was built to give employment and revenue to the public.<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong> &nbsp;. I</strong>nstead of stones and marble, brick and lime were used. Stucco ornamentation (gajkari) was used to decorate the monuments, giving it a deep relief effect even on flat walls. Mother of pearl and shells deposited in lake beds were used in the stucco ornamentation to give a shine finer than marble. The local masons cleverly used the brick, with its small size and thickness, to form remarkably fine details on the wall and column surfaces.<br />
&nbsp;</p>


Answer: (a)

    . The Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri is “the most iconic architectural accomplishment of Akbar’s reign. It incorporates almost all the essential features of Akbar’s architectural traditions: red sandstone, stone carvings, relief by inserting white marble, etc.” The construction of the Buland Darwaza was inspired by Timurid architecture. Along with Humayun’s Tomb, its monumentality reflects its Central Asian origins.
    . Asaf-ud-Daula’s rule saw a devastating famine, which created an economic crisis. The residents of Awadh were self-respecting people, so instead of handing out dole, the Nawab started a food-for-work programme. The famous Asafi Imambara, or Bara Imambara, of Lucknow was built to give employment and revenue to the public.
    . Instead of stones and marble, brick and lime were used. Stucco ornamentation (gajkari) was used to decorate the monuments, giving it a deep relief effect even on flat walls. Mother of pearl and shells deposited in lake beds were used in the stucco ornamentation to give a shine finer than marble. The local masons cleverly used the brick, with its small size and thickness, to form remarkably fine details on the wall and column surfaces.
 

<p><strong>Answer: (c)</strong></p>

<p>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;<strong>. S</strong>tatement 1 is CORRECT. The Tropical Forest Alliance (TFA) was founded in 2012 at Rio+20 after the Consumer Goods Forum (CGF) committed to zero net deforestation by 2020 for palm oil, soy, beef, and paper and pulp supply chains in 2010.<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;<strong>. S</strong>tatement 2 is CORRECT. TFA is a multistate holder partnership platform in which partners take voluntary actions, to reduce and ultimately halt the tropical deforestation associated with the sourcing of commodities such as palm oil, soy, beef, and paper and pulp.<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong> &nbsp;. I</strong>t operates regional platforms in Latin America, West and Central Africa, China and Southeast Asia. TFA’s work will also focus on mainstreaming “Forest Positive” landscapes and amplify demand side engagement in major economies such as the US, Europe and in China.<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>&nbsp;. T</strong>FA is funded by the governments of Norway, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, and its secretariat is hosted at the World Economic Forum.</p>

<p>Source: https://www.tropicalforestalliance.org/en/about-tfa/about/<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Answer: (c)

    . Statement 1 is CORRECT. The Tropical Forest Alliance (TFA) was founded in 2012 at Rio+20 after the Consumer Goods Forum (CGF) committed to zero net deforestation by 2020 for palm oil, soy, beef, and paper and pulp supply chains in 2010.
    . Statement 2 is CORRECT. TFA is a multistate holder partnership platform in which partners take voluntary actions, to reduce and ultimately halt the tropical deforestation associated with the sourcing of commodities such as palm oil, soy, beef, and paper and pulp.
    . It operates regional platforms in Latin America, West and Central Africa, China and Southeast Asia. TFA’s work will also focus on mainstreaming “Forest Positive” landscapes and amplify demand side engagement in major economies such as the US, Europe and in China.
    . TFA is funded by the governments of Norway, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, and its secretariat is hosted at the World Economic Forum.

Source: https://www.tropicalforestalliance.org/en/about-tfa/about/
 

<p><br />
<strong>Answer: (b)</strong></p>

<p>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;<strong>. T</strong>he Reserve Bank of India has launched ‘MANI’ mobile app to help the visually challenged identify the denomination of currency notes. The application was launched by RBI Governor Shaktikanta Das and other officials on January 1, 2020.&nbsp;<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;<strong>. T</strong>he RBI mobile app will enable the visually disabled to identify the denomination of a currency note using the application. The MANI app will work offline as well after it is installed.&nbsp;</p>

<p>Source:https://www.jagranjosh.com/current-affairs/rbi-launches-mani-app-for-visually-challenged-1577946739-1<br />
&nbsp;</p>


Answer: (b)

    . The Reserve Bank of India has launched ‘MANI’ mobile app to help the visually challenged identify the denomination of currency notes. The application was launched by RBI Governor Shaktikanta Das and other officials on January 1, 2020. 
    . The RBI mobile app will enable the visually disabled to identify the denomination of a currency note using the application. The MANI app will work offline as well after it is installed. 

Source:https://www.jagranjosh.com/current-affairs/rbi-launches-mani-app-for-visually-challenged-1577946739-1
 

<p><br />
<strong>Answer: (c)</strong></p>

<p>&nbsp;<strong>&nbsp; &nbsp;. O</strong>ption (c) is CORRECT. The organisms in an ecosystem are related through food requirements. This relationship is called food chain.<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong> &nbsp;. I</strong>n option 1, grass is eaten by rabbit, rabbit is consumed by wolf and lion eats wolf.<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;.<strong> I</strong>n option 4, grasshopper eats grass, frog eats grasshopper, snake eats frog and eagle consumes snake.<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;<strong>. I</strong>n option 2, grasshopper is found in terrestrial ecosystems not aquatic ecosystems.<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;.<strong> I</strong>n option 3, there is no herbivore animal to consume grass.</p>

<p>Source: NCERT Science, Class X</p>


Answer: (c)

    . Option (c) is CORRECT. The organisms in an ecosystem are related through food requirements. This relationship is called food chain.
    . In option 1, grass is eaten by rabbit, rabbit is consumed by wolf and lion eats wolf.
    . In option 4, grasshopper eats grass, frog eats grasshopper, snake eats frog and eagle consumes snake.
    . In option 2, grasshopper is found in terrestrial ecosystems not aquatic ecosystems.
    . In option 3, there is no herbivore animal to consume grass.

Source: NCERT Science, Class X

<p><strong>Answer: (d)</strong></p>

<p>Opportunity cost is the cost which could have been earned from second best investment option. For free goods, the opportunity cost is zero for the person consuming it, however, it is not so for the provider of that good. The choice of spending on various alternatives is available with government and not tax payers. Thus, it is transferred to government.<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Answer: (d)

Opportunity cost is the cost which could have been earned from second best investment option. For free goods, the opportunity cost is zero for the person consuming it, however, it is not so for the provider of that good. The choice of spending on various alternatives is available with government and not tax payers. Thus, it is transferred to government.
 

<p><strong>Answer: (a)</strong></p>

<p>The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act reserved one-third of all seats in Panchayats and urban local bodies for women, still, the representation of women in Parliament is not proportionate to the population of women in the Country. The Indian Constitution itself provides for the making of special laws by the parliament for the upliftment of women (Article 15) but one third reservation rule is still a long way to be passed in Parliament and State Legislature as it seems. This Bill would ensure the participatory democracy for women and will bring about gender equality.&nbsp;<br />
&nbsp;</p>

Answer: (a)

The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act reserved one-third of all seats in Panchayats and urban local bodies for women, still, the representation of women in Parliament is not proportionate to the population of women in the Country. The Indian Constitution itself provides for the making of special laws by the parliament for the upliftment of women (Article 15) but one third reservation rule is still a long way to be passed in Parliament and State Legislature as it seems. This Bill would ensure the participatory democracy for women and will bring about gender equality.