സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ : എന്തുകൊണ്ടാണ് 'മൈക്രോബീഡുകള്‍' പരിസ്ഥിതിക്ക് ദോഷകരമെന്ന് പറയുന്നത് ?

First Published 4, Nov 2020, 9:49 AM


ന്ത്യയില്‍ ഏറ്റവും കടുത്ത മത്സരം നടക്കുന്ന പരീക്ഷകളിലൊന്നാണ് സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ. അതുകൊണ്ട് പരീക്ഷയ്ക്കിറങ്ങും മുമ്പ് നിരന്തരമുള്ള തയ്യാറെടുപ്പ് ആവശ്യമാണ്. ഫോര്‍ച്ച്യൂണ്‍ അക്കാദമിയും ഏഷ്യാനെറ്റ് ഓണ്‍ലൈനും ചേര്‍ന്നൊരുക്കുന്ന സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷാ ചോദ്യോത്തരങ്ങളുടെ മൂന്നാമത്തെ ചോദ്യാവലിയാണിത്. സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസില്‍ മാത്രമല്ല, കേരള സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷയെന്നറിയപ്പെടുന്ന കേരള അഡ്മിനിസ്ട്രേറ്റ് സര്‍വ്വീസ് (KAS) പരീക്ഷയ്ക്കുള്ള പഠനത്തിനും ഈ ചോദ്യോത്തരങ്ങള്‍ നിങ്ങളെ സഹായിക്കും. മാത്രമല്ല മറ്റ് മത്സര പരീക്ഷകള്‍ക്കും. അതെ, ചെറിയ ചില കാല്‍വെപ്പുകള്‍ വിലയ മുന്നേറ്റങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് കാരണമാകാം. വരൂ, നമ്മുക്കൊന്നിച്ച് മുന്നേറാം.
 

<p><strong>Answer: (d)</strong></p>

<p><br />
<strong>• Statement 1 is INCORRECT.</strong> Theosophical Society was founded in New York (USA) in 1875 by Madam H.P. Blavatsky and H.S. Olcott with three main objectives:<br />
Ø To form a universal brotherhood of man<br />
Ø To promote the study of ancient religions and philosophies (including Buddhism and Jainism). So statement 3 is CORRECT.<br />
Ø To make a systematic investigation into the mystic potencies of life and matter, this is called occultism.<br />
<strong>• Statements 2 and 4 are INCORRECT.</strong> Annie Besant was not a co-founder. In fact under her leadership theosophical society became popular in India. Under their inspiration, the Theosophical Society of India came into being at Adyar in Madras in 1886. Brahma Samaj was established much before the formation of theosophical society.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>

<p><br />
<strong>Source</strong>: A Brief History of Modern India</p>

Answer: (d)


• Statement 1 is INCORRECT. Theosophical Society was founded in New York (USA) in 1875 by Madam H.P. Blavatsky and H.S. Olcott with three main objectives:
Ø To form a universal brotherhood of man
Ø To promote the study of ancient religions and philosophies (including Buddhism and Jainism). So statement 3 is CORRECT.
Ø To make a systematic investigation into the mystic potencies of life and matter, this is called occultism.
• Statements 2 and 4 are INCORRECT. Annie Besant was not a co-founder. In fact under her leadership theosophical society became popular in India. Under their inspiration, the Theosophical Society of India came into being at Adyar in Madras in 1886. Brahma Samaj was established much before the formation of theosophical society.          


Source: A Brief History of Modern India

<p><br />
<strong>Answer: (c)</strong></p>

<p><br />
After Guru Gobind Singh's death the institution of Guruship came to an end and the leadership of the Sikhs passed to his trusted disciple Banda Bahadur.</p>

<p><br />
<strong>Source: </strong>A Brief History of Modern India</p>


Answer: (c)


After Guru Gobind Singh's death the institution of Guruship came to an end and the leadership of the Sikhs passed to his trusted disciple Banda Bahadur.


Source: A Brief History of Modern India

<p><strong>Answer: (d)</strong></p>

<p><br />
Mahatma Gandhi set up All India Anti-Untouchability league in 1932 which later transformed into Harijan Sevak Sangh. All India Kisan Sabha was founded by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati in 1936 to spearhead peasant movements in colonial India. E V Ramaswamy Naicker started Self respect movement against untouchability in 1925.</p>

<p><br />
<strong>Source:</strong> Spectrum modern India pg. 438, Bipan chandra pg. 344, Ncert 8 page 119</p>

Answer: (d)


Mahatma Gandhi set up All India Anti-Untouchability league in 1932 which later transformed into Harijan Sevak Sangh. All India Kisan Sabha was founded by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati in 1936 to spearhead peasant movements in colonial India. E V Ramaswamy Naicker started Self respect movement against untouchability in 1925.


Source: Spectrum modern India pg. 438, Bipan chandra pg. 344, Ncert 8 page 119

<p><br />
<strong>Answer: (c)</strong></p>

<p><br />
Kot Diji (now in Pakistan) was an early Harappan site. Chanhudaro (Pakistan) and Desalpur (Gujarat) are mature Harappan sites.</p>

<p><br />
<strong>Source:</strong> Upinder Singh page146<br />
&nbsp;</p>


Answer: (c)


Kot Diji (now in Pakistan) was an early Harappan site. Chanhudaro (Pakistan) and Desalpur (Gujarat) are mature Harappan sites.


Source: Upinder Singh page146
 

<p><br />
<strong>Answer: (d)</strong></p>

<p><br />
<strong>. Statement 1 is CORRECT.</strong> Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's agitations for legalizing widow remarriage resulted in the passage of a law in 1844.<br />
<strong>. Statement 2 is CORRECT.</strong> He opposed polygamy.<br />
<strong>. Statement 3 is CORRECT. </strong>He was a secretary of Bethune Schools and was a pioneer of higher education of women.<br />
Statement 4 is CORRECT. He did oppose child marriage.</p>

<p><br />
<strong>Source:</strong> A Brief History of Modern India<br />
&nbsp;</p>


Answer: (d)


. Statement 1 is CORRECT. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's agitations for legalizing widow remarriage resulted in the passage of a law in 1844.
. Statement 2 is CORRECT. He opposed polygamy.
. Statement 3 is CORRECT. He was a secretary of Bethune Schools and was a pioneer of higher education of women.
Statement 4 is CORRECT. He did oppose child marriage.


Source: A Brief History of Modern India
 

<p><br />
<strong>Answer:&nbsp;(d)</strong></p>

<p><br />
<strong>.Statement 1:</strong>&nbsp;Sea turtles may be carnivorous (meat eating), herbivorous (plant eating), or omnivorous (eating both meat and plants). The jaw structure of many species indicates their diet.<br />
Some species change eating habits as they age. For example, green sea turtles are mainly carnivorous from hatching until juvenile size; then progressively shift to an herbivorous diet.&nbsp;<br />
<strong>.Statement 2:</strong>&nbsp;Herbivorous fishes are fishes that eat plant material. Surgeonfish and parrotfish are two familiar MAR examples, often seen browsing and scraping on reef algae. &nbsp;<br />
<strong>.Statement 3:</strong>&nbsp;Marine herbivores are found within four groups of species in the animal kingdom — invertebrates, fish, reptiles and mammals — and include zooplankton, mollusks, the green sea turtle, the marine iguana and some fish species. Manatees and dugongs are the only herbivores among marine mammals. &nbsp;<br />
<strong>.Statement 4:</strong>&nbsp;Snakes are reptiles, and most species of snakes will follow the general rules of reptilian reproduction — the mother will lay a clutch of eggs that will hatch into baby snakes. Such snakes are referred to as oviparous. A few exceptional species of snakes diverge from this general rule. They are referred to as viviparous, and they give birth to live young. Both oviparous and viviparous snakes have uteri, or wombs; however, only viviparous snakes form placental attachments between their uteri and the developing fetuses.&nbsp;</p>

<p><br />
<strong>Source: </strong></p>

<p>https://seaworld.org/animals/all-about/sea-turtles/diet/&nbsp;<br />
http://www.healthyreefs.org/cms/healthy-reef-indicators/herbivorous-fish-abundance/ https://animals.mom.me/marine-animals-herbivores-11740.html<br />
https://animals.mom.me/snakes-wombs-10778.html<br />
&nbsp;</p>


Answer: (d)


.Statement 1: Sea turtles may be carnivorous (meat eating), herbivorous (plant eating), or omnivorous (eating both meat and plants). The jaw structure of many species indicates their diet.
Some species change eating habits as they age. For example, green sea turtles are mainly carnivorous from hatching until juvenile size; then progressively shift to an herbivorous diet. 
.Statement 2: Herbivorous fishes are fishes that eat plant material. Surgeonfish and parrotfish are two familiar MAR examples, often seen browsing and scraping on reef algae.  
.Statement 3: Marine herbivores are found within four groups of species in the animal kingdom — invertebrates, fish, reptiles and mammals — and include zooplankton, mollusks, the green sea turtle, the marine iguana and some fish species. Manatees and dugongs are the only herbivores among marine mammals.  
.Statement 4: Snakes are reptiles, and most species of snakes will follow the general rules of reptilian reproduction — the mother will lay a clutch of eggs that will hatch into baby snakes. Such snakes are referred to as oviparous. A few exceptional species of snakes diverge from this general rule. They are referred to as viviparous, and they give birth to live young. Both oviparous and viviparous snakes have uteri, or wombs; however, only viviparous snakes form placental attachments between their uteri and the developing fetuses. 


Source:

https://seaworld.org/animals/all-about/sea-turtles/diet/ 
http://www.healthyreefs.org/cms/healthy-reef-indicators/herbivorous-fish-abundance/ https://animals.mom.me/marine-animals-herbivores-11740.html
https://animals.mom.me/snakes-wombs-10778.html
 

<p><br />
<strong>Answer: (a)</strong></p>

<p><br />
<strong>. M</strong>icrobeads are small, solid, manufactured plastic particles that are less than 5mm and don’t degrade or dissolve in water. They may be added to a range of products, including rinse-off cosmetics, personal care and cleaning products. They are considered harmful to marine and aquatic ecosystem.</p>

<p><br />
<strong>Source: </strong>https://www.environment.gov.au/protection/waste-resource-recovery/plastics-<br />
and- packaging/plastic-microbeads<br />
&nbsp;</p>


Answer: (a)


. Microbeads are small, solid, manufactured plastic particles that are less than 5mm and don’t degrade or dissolve in water. They may be added to a range of products, including rinse-off cosmetics, personal care and cleaning products. They are considered harmful to marine and aquatic ecosystem.


Source: https://www.environment.gov.au/protection/waste-resource-recovery/plastics-
and- packaging/plastic-microbeads
 

<p><strong>Answer: (d)</strong></p>

<p><br />
<strong>. Statement 1 is INCORRECT.</strong> Producer Price Index (PPI) measures the average change in prices received by the producer and excludes indirect taxes.</p>

<p><strong>. Statement 2 is INCORRECT. </strong>PPI measures the average change in the price of goods and services either as they leave the place of production, called output PPI or as they enter the production process, called input PPI.</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p><strong>Source: </strong>https://eaindustry.nic.in/uploaded_files/FAQs_on_WPI.pdf</p>

<p><br />
&nbsp;</p>

Answer: (d)


. Statement 1 is INCORRECT. Producer Price Index (PPI) measures the average change in prices received by the producer and excludes indirect taxes.

. Statement 2 is INCORRECT. PPI measures the average change in the price of goods and services either as they leave the place of production, called output PPI or as they enter the production process, called input PPI.

 

Source: https://eaindustry.nic.in/uploaded_files/FAQs_on_WPI.pdf


 

<p><br />
<strong>Answer: (d)</strong></p>

<p><br />
<strong>. Statements 1 and 3are CORRECT. </strong>The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) constituted by the Central Government under Section 45ZB determines the policy interest rate required to achieve the inflation target. Monetary Policy Committee is an executive body of 6 members. Of these, three members are from RBI while three other members are nominated by the Central Government. Each member has one vote. In case of a tie, the RBI governor has the casting vote to break the tie.<br />
<strong>. Statement 2 is INCORRECT.</strong> There is no provision for judicial members in the committee.</p>

<p><br />
<strong>Source</strong>:https://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/FS_Overview.aspx?fn=2752<br />
&nbsp;</p>


Answer: (d)


. Statements 1 and 3are CORRECT. The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) constituted by the Central Government under Section 45ZB determines the policy interest rate required to achieve the inflation target. Monetary Policy Committee is an executive body of 6 members. Of these, three members are from RBI while three other members are nominated by the Central Government. Each member has one vote. In case of a tie, the RBI governor has the casting vote to break the tie.
. Statement 2 is INCORRECT. There is no provision for judicial members in the committee.


Source:https://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/FS_Overview.aspx?fn=2752
 

<p><strong>Answer: (d)</strong></p>

<p><br />
<strong>. Statement 1:</strong> The Sentinel satellite of the European Space Agency has certain specific spectral characteristics that can be used to measure even the chlorophyll content in the vegetation of a specific location. Correct.<br />
<strong>. Statement 2:</strong> Estimation of Methane Emissions from Rice Paddies in the Mekong Delta Based on Land Surface Dynamics Characterization with Remote Sensing. Correct.<br />
<strong>. Statement 3: </strong>The land surface temperature of a specific location can be measured with the help of satellite images/ remote sensing data. Correct.</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p><br />
<strong>Source:</strong> https://www.downtoearth.org.in/interviews/science-and-technology/-remote- sensing-is-being-used-to-predict-crop-growing-seasons--56372</p>

Answer: (d)


. Statement 1: The Sentinel satellite of the European Space Agency has certain specific spectral characteristics that can be used to measure even the chlorophyll content in the vegetation of a specific location. Correct.
. Statement 2: Estimation of Methane Emissions from Rice Paddies in the Mekong Delta Based on Land Surface Dynamics Characterization with Remote Sensing. Correct.
. Statement 3: The land surface temperature of a specific location can be measured with the help of satellite images/ remote sensing data. Correct.

 


Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/interviews/science-and-technology/-remote- sensing-is-being-used-to-predict-crop-growing-seasons--56372