സിവില് സര്വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ: എന്താണ് വ്യോം മിത്ര പദ്ധതി ?
ഇന്ത്യന് ബ്യൂറോക്രസിയുടെ ഏറ്റവും ഉയര്ന്ന പദവികളിലേക്കുള്ള പരീക്ഷയായ സിവില് സര്വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷയ്ക്കായി ഏഷ്യാനെറ്റ് ഓണ്ലൈനും അമൃത ഐഎഎസ് അക്കാദമിയും ചേര്ന്നൊരുക്കുന്ന ചോദ്യമാതൃകയുടെ അമ്പത്തിയാറാം ഭാഗം.
Statement 1 is not correct. It is the system of appointment and transfer of judges that has evolved through judgments of the Supreme Court, and not by an Act of parliament or by a provision of the Constitution. In the second judges’ case, SC introduced the Collegium system with the two senior-most judges in the SC. In the third judges’ case, the Supreme court on President’s reference expanded the Collegium to a five-member body, comprising the CJI and four of his senior-most colleagues.
Statement 2 is correct. The SC collegium is headed by the CJI and comprises four other senior-most judges of the court. An HC collegium is led by its Chief Justice and four other senior-most judges of that court. Names recommended for appointment by an HC collegium reach the government only after approval by the CJI and the SC collegium. Judges of the higher judiciary are appointed only through the collegium system and the government has a role only after names have been decided by the collegium.
Statement 1 is not correct. Labour falls under the Concurrent List of the Constitution as per the seventh schedule of the constitution.
Statement 2 is not correct. Recently, the Parliament passed three labour codes on industrial relations; occupational safety, health and working conditions; and social security proposing to simplify the country’s archaic labour laws and give impetus to economic activity without compromising with the workers’ benefits.
Statement 1 is correct. Chinese paddlefish is endemic to the Yangtze River (including brackish water of the mouth) in China and was last spotted in 2003. However, it is not the only paddlefish species in existence. There is one more paddlefish species existing in the US, called American paddlefish (IUCN Status: Vulnerable) species found in the Mississippi River Basin in the United States.
Statement 2 is not correct. IUCN status of Chinese paddlefish is Critically Endangered. (Although declared extinct by Chinese scientists but its IUCN status is Critically Endangered, which was last assessed in 2009). Overfishing and habitat fragmentation and dam-building caused its population to dwindle from the 1970s onwards.
Statement 1 is correct. 2nd February 2021 marked the 50th anniversary of the Ramsar Convention, the day which is also celebrated as World Wetlands Day. India on this occasion established the Centre for Wetland Conservation & Management which is the first in the country. It is set up under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), at the National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management (NCSCM) in Chennai.
Statement 2 is not correct. India currently has 42 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites). This is the highest in South Asia. Currently, two wetlands of India are in Montreux record: Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan) and Loktak Lake (Manipur). Chilika Lake (Odisha) was placed in the record but was later removed from it. (Montreux Record under the Ramsar Convention is a register of wetland sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution, or other human interference.)
Statement 3 is not correct. Lonar Lake of Maharashtra was also added recently to the Ramsar list apart from Nandur Madhameshwar.
Statement 1 is correct. To control the price rise, the Centre in 2016 gave a mandate to the RBI to keep the retail inflation at 4% with a margin of 2% on either side for a five-year period ending on 31st March 2021.
Statement 2 is not correct. The Government of India has decided to retain the inflation target of 4%, with a tolerance band of +/- 2 percent. Earlier, the RBI in its Currency and Finance (RCF) report for the year 2020-21 also recommended the inflation target to be kept the same as 4% +/-2% for the next 5 years.
Statement 1 is correct. Any profit or gain that arises from the sale of a ‘capital asset’ is a capital gain. This gain or profit comes under the category of ‘income’. Hence, the capital gain tax will be required to be paid for that amount in the year in which the transfer of the capital asset takes place. This is called the capital gains tax, which can be both short-term or long-term.
Long-term Capital Gains Tax: It is a levy on the profits from the sale of assets held for more than a year. The rates are 0%, 15%, or 20%, depending on tax bracket.
Short-term Capital Gains Tax: It applies to assets held for a year or less and is taxed as ordinary income.
Capital gains can be reduced by deducting the capital losses that occur when a taxable asset is sold for less than the original purchase price.
The total of capital gains minus any capital losses is known as the "net capital gains".
Statement 2 is correct. Tax on capital gains is triggered only when an asset is sold, or "realized". Stock shares that appreciate every year will not be taxed for capital gains until they are sold.
Statement 1 is incorrect. When CO2 is dissolved in the ocean water, it creates Carbonic Acid(H2CO3) and increases the Hydrogen Ion(H+) concentration in the ocean.
Statement 2 is incorrect. At present, the pH of the ocean water is 8.069 which is basic in nature.
Statement 3 is correct. The decreased pH may lead to hypercapnia in the ocean biota. Hypercapnia refers to the CO2-induced acidification of body fluids, which may lead to adverse effects.
Statement 1 is not correct. The AI-based robotic system is being developed at a robotics lab at the VSSC in Thiruvananthapuram. Vyommitra, equipped with a head, two arms, and a torso, is built to mimic crew activity inside the crew module of Gaganyaan. Attaining launch and orbital postures, responding to the environment, generating warnings, replacing carbon dioxide canisters, operating switches, monitoring of the crew module, receiving voice commands, responding via speech (bilingual) are among its functions listed.
Statement 2 is correct. This will serve as the test of ISRO’s preparedness for its maiden manned space mission, Gaganyaan, being targeted for 2022 to mark 75 years of India’s independence. Once it is fully developed, Vyom Mitra will be able to use the equipment onboard the spacecraft’s crew module, like safety mechanisms and switches, as well as receive and act on commands sent from ground stations.
Statement 1 is correct. The Henley Passport Index is the original ranking of all the world’s passports according to the number of destinations their holders can access without a prior visa.
Statement 2 is not correct. It is originally created by Dr. Christian H. Kaelin (chairman of Henley & Partners), the ranking is based on exclusive data from the International Air Transport Association (IATA), which maintains the world’s largest and most accurate database of travel information.
It was launched in 2006 and includes 199 different passports.
Statement 3 is correct. Japan continues to hold the number one position on the index, with passport holders able to access 191 destinations around the world visa-free.
Singapore is in second place (with a score of 190) and South Korea ties with Germany in third place (with a score of 189).
Statement 1 is correct. The image of Buddha from Sarnath made of chunar sandstone belongs to the late fifth century CE. The Buddha is shown seated on a throne in Padmasana.
Statement 2 is correct. The seated Buddha image from Sarnath Represents Dhammachakrapravartana (first sermon) as can be seen from the figures on the throne. The panel below the throne depicts a Chakra (wheel) in the center and a deer on either side with his disciples. Thus, it is the representation of the historic event of Dhammachakrapravartana or the preaching of dhamma.