സിവില് സര്വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ: ഭാഷാടിസ്ഥാനത്തിൽ സംസ്ഥാന പുനഃസംഘടനാ ആവശ്യം അംഗീകരിച്ച കമ്മീഷൻ ?
ഇന്ത്യന് ബ്യൂറോക്രസിയുടെ ഏറ്റവും ഉയര്ന്ന പദവികളിലേക്കുള്ള പരീക്ഷയായ സിവില് സര്വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷയ്ക്കായി ഏഷ്യാനെറ്റ് ഓണ്ലൈനും അമൃത ഐഎഎസ് അക്കാദമിയും ചേര്ന്നൊരുക്കുന്ന ചോദ്യമാതൃകയുടെ അമ്പത്തഞ്ചാം ഭാഗം.
Statement 1 is correct. The origins of the basic structure doctrine are found in the German Constitution which, after the Nazi regime, was amended to protect some basic laws. In India, the basic structure doctrine has formed the bedrock of judicial review of all laws passed by Parliament. No law can impinge on the basic structure.
Statement 2 is correct. What the basic structure is, however, has been a continuing deliberation. Parliamentary democracy, fundamental rights, judicial review, secularism- are all held by courts as the basic structure, the list is not exhaustive. It is the Judiciary that is responsible to decide what constitutes the basic structure.
Statement 3 is correct. The TheSupreme Court relying on the decision of KesavanandaBharati stated that democracy was an essential feature of the Constitution and forms part of the basic structure. The bench added certain other features to the list of the basic structure, which was: Rule of Law and the power of Judicial Review.
The 3-member States Reorganization Commission, under the chairmanship of FazlAli, was formed to re-examine the creation of states on a linguistic basis, the other two members were K. M. Panikkar and H N Kunzru.
Appointed in 1953, it submitted its report in September 1955 and broadly accepted language as the basis of reorganization of the states. But it rejected the theory of ‘one language, one state’.
Its view was that the unity of India should be regarded as the primary consideration in any redrawing of the country’s political units.
It identified four major factors that can be taken into account in any scheme of reorganization of states:
o Preservation and strengthening of the unity and security of the country.
o Linguistic and cultural homogeneity.
o Financial, economic and administrative considerations.
o Planning and promotion of the welfare of the people in each state, as well as of the nation as a whole.
The Okjokull glacier was officially declared dead by the Icelandic Meteorological Office when it was no longer thick enough to move.
Okjokull used to stretch 16 square kilometers in 1890 and now there is only a small patch of ice in its place.
Researchers installed a bronze memorial plaque at the site to serve as a tombstone for the glacier.
Okjokull is the first Icelandic glacier to lose its status as a glacier.
In exercise of the powers conferred by sections of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 the government has notified the E-Waste (Management) Rules, 2016. These rules shall apply to every manufacturer, producer, consumer, bulk consumer, collection centers, dealers, e-retailer, refurbished, dismantler, and recycler involved in the manufacture, sale, transfer, purchase, collection, storage, and processing of e-waste or electrical and electronic equipment listed in Schedule I, including their components, consumables, parts, and spares which make the product operational but shall not apply to used lead-acid batteries as covered under the Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001 made under the Act; Micro-enterprises as defined in the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006 (27 of 2006). Hence, statement 1 is correct.
‘Extended Producer Responsibility’ means the responsibility of any producer of electrical or electronic equipment, for the channelization of e-waste to ensure environmentally sound management of such waste
Initially, the concerned State Pollution Control Board were given the responsibility to monitor the compliance of Extended Producer Responsibility - Authorisation, take cognizance of any noncompliance and inform Central Pollution Control Board for taking action, as necessary but, later the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has been given the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) authorization under the new e-waste rules—diverting it from the State Pollution Boards. Hence, statement 2 is not correct.
Green GDP is a term used for expressing GDP after adjusting for environmental damage.
The process of environmental accounting involves three steps viz.
o Physical accounting: Physical accounting determines the state of the resources, types, and extent (qualitative and quantitative) in spatial and temporal terms.
o Monetary valuation: Monetary valuation is done to determine its tangible and intangible components.
o Integration with National Income/wealth Accounts: The net change in natural resources in monetary terms is integrated into the Gross Domestic Product in order to reach the value of Green GDP
When information on the economy's use of the natural environment is integrated into the system of national accounts, it becomes green national accounts or environmental accounting.
Social Entrepreneurship is a construct that blends the idea of a commercial enterprise with the tenets of a charitable non-profit organization.
It is about creating business models revolving around low-cost products and services to resolve social inequities.
It helps to succeed in economic initiatives, and all the investment focuses on the social and environmental mission. Social entrepreneurs are also called social innovators.
They are the agents of change and create significant change using innovative ideas. They identify the problems and build the difference by their plan.
Crescent Shaped Sand Dunes are called Barchans with the points or wings directed away from the wind direction. Examples of landforms in deserts are
o Rock Pedestals
o Deflation Hollows
o Sand Dunes
Amidst the ongoing farmer’s protests, questions are being raised on the sustainability of paddy-wheat cultivation, especially in Punjab. There are several reasons for this:
o Growing the same crops year after year on the same land increases vulnerability to pest and disease attacks. The more the crop and genetic diversity, the more difficult it is for insects and pathogens to devise a way to pierce through plant resistance. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
o Wheat and paddy cannot fix nitrogen, unlike pulses and legumes, which fix nitrogen from the atmosphere.
o Their continuous cultivation without any crop rotation, then, leads to depletion of soil nutrients and growing dependence on chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Thus, they require more fertilizers than pulses. Hence, statement 2 is not correct.
o Paddy requires a huge amount of water. Punjab’s groundwater table has been declining by 0.5 meters per annum on average due to paddy and the state’s policy of supplying free power for irrigation.
o It has encouraged farmers to grow long-duration water-guzzling varieties of paddy like Pusa-44.
o Pusa-44 has a high yield of rice but a long duration growth period. Hence, statement 3 is not correct.
Prime Ministers of India and Nepal have jointly inaugurated the Motihari-Amlekhganj petroleum product pipeline, the first of its kind in South Asia.
About the Pipeline: The 69 km-long pipeline from Motihari in Bihar to Amlekhganj in Nepal is the first-ever cross-border petroleum product pipeline in the South Asia region.
Significance of the pipeline: Every year, the pipeline will carry two million metric tonnes of clean petroleum products at an affordable price to Nepal. It will help to enhance the energy security of the region and substantially cut down on transit costs.
MajorJain Architecture sites are
o Ellora Caves (Cave No. 30-35) - Maharashtra
o Mangi Tungi Cave - Maharashtra
o Gajapantha Cave - Maharashtra
o Udayagiri-Khandagiri Caves - Odisha
o Hathi-gumph Cave - Odisha
o Sittanavasal Cave - Tamil Nadu