സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ; ലോകത്ത് ആദ്യമായി ജിഎസ്ടി ഏര്‍പ്പെടുത്തിയ രാജ്യമേത് ?

First Published Jan 4, 2021, 1:29 PM IST

ന്ത്യന്‍ ബ്യൂറോക്രസിയുടെ ഏറ്റവും ഉയര്‍ന്ന പദവിയിലേക്കുള്ള പരീക്ഷയാണ് സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ. ഇന്ത്യന്‍ അഡ്മിനിസ്ട്രേറ്റീവ് സര്‍വ്വീസ് (ഐഎഎസ്), ഇന്ത്യന്‍ പൊലീസ് സര്‍വ്വീസ് (ഐപിഎസ്), ഇന്ത്യന്‍ ഫോറിന്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് (ഐഎഫ്എസ്) എന്നീ ഗ്ലാമര്‍ പദവികള്‍ മുതല്‍ നിരവധി വകുപ്പുകളിലേ ക്ലാസ് വണ്‍ ഉദ്യോഗങ്ങളിലേക്കും ചില ഗ്രൂപ്പ് ബി തസ്തികകളിലേക്കുമുള്ള തെരഞ്ഞെടുപ്പും സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷയെ അടിസ്ഥാനമാക്കിയാണ് നടക്കുന്നത്. അതുകൊണ്ട് തന്നെ കടുത്ത മത്സരം നടക്കുന്ന പരീക്ഷകളിലൊന്നാണ് സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ. പരീക്ഷയ്ക്കിറങ്ങും മുമ്പ് നിരന്തരമുള്ള തയ്യാറെടുപ്പ് ആവശ്യമാണ്. ഫോര്‍ച്ച്യൂണ്‍ അക്കാദമിയും ഏഷ്യാനെറ്റ് ഓണ്‍ലൈനും ചേര്‍ന്നൊരുക്കുന്ന സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷാ ചോദ്യോത്തരങ്ങളുടെ പന്ത്രണ്ടാമത്തെ ചോദ്യാവലിയാണിത്. സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസില്‍ മാത്രമല്ല, കേരള സിവില്‍ സര്‍വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷയെന്നറിയപ്പെടുന്ന കേരള അഡ്മിനിസ്ട്രേറ്റ് സര്‍വ്വീസ് (KAS) പരീക്ഷയ്ക്കുള്ള പഠനത്തിനും ഈ ചോദ്യോത്തരങ്ങള്‍ നിങ്ങളെ സഹായിക്കും. അതെ, ചെറിയ ചില കാല്‍വെപ്പുകള്‍ വിലയ മുന്നേറ്റങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് കാരണമാകാം. വരൂ, നമ്മുക്കൊന്നിച്ച് മുന്നേറാം.

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:120%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (c)</span></span></span> </span></span></span></span></p>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size: 16px; text-indent: -0.29in; font-family: Arial;">•</span><span style="font-size: 16px; text-indent: -0.29in; font-family: &quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Statement 1 is CORRECT</span>. Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites. The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, called "malaria vectors." There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans, and 2 of these species – P. falciparum and P. vivax – pose the greatest threat.</span></span></p>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:120%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Statement 2 is CORRECT</span>. Vector control is the main way to prevent and reduce malaria transmission. If coverage of vector control interventions within a specific area is high enough, then a measure of protection will be conferred across the community.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:120%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Two forms of vector control – insecticide-treated mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying – are effective in a wide range of circumstances.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:120%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Antimalarial medicines can also be used to prevent malaria. For travelers, malaria can be prevented through chemoprophylaxis, which suppresses the blood stage of malaria infections, thereby preventing malaria disease.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<p><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Source: </span><a href="https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malaria">https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malaria</a></span></span></span></p>

Answer: (c)

Statement 1 is CORRECT. Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites. The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, called "malaria vectors." There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans, and 2 of these species – P. falciparum and P. vivax – pose the greatest threat.

Statement 2 is CORRECT. Vector control is the main way to prevent and reduce malaria transmission. If coverage of vector control interventions within a specific area is high enough, then a measure of protection will be conferred across the community.
Two forms of vector control – insecticide-treated mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying – are effective in a wide range of circumstances.
Antimalarial medicines can also be used to prevent malaria. For travelers, malaria can be prevented through chemoprophylaxis, which suppresses the blood stage of malaria infections, thereby preventing malaria disease.

    Source: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malaria

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (a)</span></span></span> </span></span></span></span></p>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:38px; text-indent:-.39in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Option (a) is CORRECT</span>. Ammonia gas is principally generated through refrigerator pre-cooler system of cold storage, manufacture of anhydrous ammonium fertilizers, nitric acid and domestic incineration etc.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:38px; text-indent:-.39in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The emission of ammonia causes bleaching of plant leaves, reduction of root and shoots growth, browning and softening of fruits, reduction in the rate of germination etc.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Source: </span>ICSE Environment Education, Class X</span></span> </span></span></span></span></p>

Answer: (a)

Option (a) is CORRECT. Ammonia gas is principally generated through refrigerator pre-cooler system of cold storage, manufacture of anhydrous ammonium fertilizers, nitric acid and domestic incineration etc.
The emission of ammonia causes bleaching of plant leaves, reduction of root and shoots growth, browning and softening of fruits, reduction in the rate of germination etc.

Source: ICSE Environment Education, Class X

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:left"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (a)</span></span></span> </span></span></span></span></p>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:left"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Carbon fertilization results in larger amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that has resulted from rising anthropogenic emissions should help the growth of plants, which use carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. The effect ought to increase crop yields – and that is some good news for farmers, amid the overwhelmingly gloomy forecasts for other aspects of climate change.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

Answer: (a)

Carbon fertilization results in larger amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that has resulted from rising anthropogenic emissions should help the growth of plants, which use carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. The effect ought to increase crop yields – and that is some good news for farmers, amid the overwhelmingly gloomy forecasts for other aspects of climate change.

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (c)</span></span></span> </span></span></span></span></p>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Pairs 1, 2 and 3 are correct</span>: Government plans to merge 10 public sector banks into four. This would take the number of banks in the country from</span></span> <span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">27 in 2017 to 12. New mergers include: Punjab National Bank, Oriental&nbsp; Bank of Commerce and United Bank of India will combine to form the nation’s second-largest lender. Canara Bank and Syndicate Bank will merge. Union Bank of India will amalgamate with Andhra Bank and Corporation Bank.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Pair 4 is incorrect</span>: Indian Bank will merge with Allahabad Bank and not Corporation Bank.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

Answer: (c)

Pairs 1, 2 and 3 are correct: Government plans to merge 10 public sector banks into four. This would take the number of banks in the country from 27 in 2017 to 12. New mergers include: Punjab National Bank, Oriental  Bank of Commerce and United Bank of India will combine to form the nation’s second-largest lender. Canara Bank and Syndicate Bank will merge. Union Bank of India will amalgamate with Andhra Bank and Corporation Bank.
Pair 4 is incorrect: Indian Bank will merge with Allahabad Bank and not Corporation Bank.

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:left"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (c)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:left"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The Western Ghats, also known as Sahyadri, are a mountain range that covers an area of 140,000 square kilometers in a stretch of 1,600 kilometers parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, traversing the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:left"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Source: </span>https://www.britannica.com/place/Western-Ghats</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

Answer: (c)

The Western Ghats, also known as Sahyadri, are a mountain range that covers an area of 140,000 square kilometers in a stretch of 1,600 kilometers parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, traversing the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Source: https://www.britannica.com/place/Western-Ghats

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (a)</span></span></span> </span></span></span></span></p>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">If Rajya Sabha declares that it is necessary in the national interest that Parliament should make law o a matter in the state list, then the Parliament becomes competent to make laws on that matter.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Such resolution must be supported by two-thirds of the members present and voting.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">The resolution remains in force for one year. <span style="font-weight:bold">It can be renewed for any number of times but not exceeding one year at a time.</span></span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">The law ceases to have effect on the expiration of six months after the resolution has ceased to be in force</span></span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">This provision <span style="font-weight:bold">does not restrict the power of a state legislature </span>to make laws on the same matter.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">But, in case of inconsistency between a state law and a parliamentary law, the latter is to prevail.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

Answer: (a)

If Rajya Sabha declares that it is necessary in the national interest that Parliament should make law o a matter in the state list, then the Parliament becomes competent to make laws on that matter.
Such resolution must be supported by two-thirds of the members present and voting.
The resolution remains in force for one year. It can be renewed for any number of times but not exceeding one year at a time.
The law ceases to have effect on the expiration of six months after the resolution has ceased to be in force
This provision does not restrict the power of a state legislature to make laws on the same matter.
But, in case of inconsistency between a state law and a parliamentary law, the latter is to prevail.

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (d)</span></span></span> </span></span></span></span></p>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) is a UPI based payment interface developed by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) launched in December, 2016.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Recently government launched BHIM 2.0 with new functionalities, additional language support.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">New BHIM 2.0 contains: Donation’ gateway, increased transaction limits for high value transactions, linking multiple bank accounts, offers from merchants, option of applying in IPO, gifting money. Also it supports three additional languages — Konkani, Bhojpuri and Haryanvi — over and above the existing 13.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

Answer: (d)

Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) is a UPI based payment interface developed by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) launched in December, 2016.
Recently government launched BHIM 2.0 with new functionalities, additional language support.
New BHIM 2.0 contains: Donation’ gateway, increased transaction limits for high value transactions, linking multiple bank accounts, offers from merchants, option of applying in IPO, gifting money. Also it supports three additional languages — Konkani, Bhojpuri and Haryanvi — over and above the existing 13.

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (a)</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:90%"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">France was the first country to implement GST to reduce&nbsp;tax- evasion. Since then, more than&nbsp;140 countries&nbsp;have implemented GST with some countries having&nbsp;Dual-GST (e.g. Brazil, Canada etc. model. India has chosen the&nbsp;Canadian model&nbsp;of&nbsp;dual GST.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

<p><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Source:&nbsp; </span><a href="http://www.google.com/">https://cleartax.in/s/gst-india-and-other-countries comparison#:~:text=France%20was%20the%20first%20country,(e.g.%20Brazil%2C%20Canada%20etc.</a></span></span></span></p>

Answer: (a)

France was the first country to implement GST to reduce tax- evasion. Since then, more than 140 countries have implemented GST with some countries having Dual-GST (e.g. Brazil, Canada etc. model. India has chosen the Canadian model of dual GST.

Source:  https://cleartax.in/s/gst-india-and-other-countries comparison#:~:text=France%20was%20the%20first%20country,(e.g.%20Brazil%2C%20Canada%20etc.

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:left"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (d)</span></span></span> </span></span></span></span></p>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">All options are CORRECT</span>. Invasive alien species (IAS) are animals, plants or other organisms that are introduced into places outside their natural range, negatively impacting native biodiversity, ecosystem services or human well-being.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">IAS are one of the biggest causes of biodiversity loss and species extinctions, and are also a global threat to food security and livelihoods.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">IAS are compounded by climate change. Climate change facilitates the&nbsp; spread and establishment of many alien species and creates new opportunities for them to become invasive.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">Lantana, Water hyacinth, Guppy and Common carp are invasive alien species in India.</span></span>&nbsp; </span></span></span></span></div>

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">&nbsp;&nbsp; Source: </span><a href="http://nbaindia.org/uploaded/pdf/Iaslist.pdf">http://nbaindia.org/uploaded/pdf/Iaslist.pdf</a></span></span> </span></span></span></span></p>

Answer: (d)

All options are CORRECT. Invasive alien species (IAS) are animals, plants or other organisms that are introduced into places outside their natural range, negatively impacting native biodiversity, ecosystem services or human well-being.
IAS are one of the biggest causes of biodiversity loss and species extinctions, and are also a global threat to food security and livelihoods.
IAS are compounded by climate change. Climate change facilitates the  spread and establishment of many alien species and creates new opportunities for them to become invasive.
Lantana, Water hyacinth, Guppy and Common carp are invasive alien species in India. 

   Source: http://nbaindia.org/uploaded/pdf/Iaslist.pdf

<p style="margin-top:13px; text-indent:0in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Answer: (a)</span></span></span> </span></span></span></span></p>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Option (a) is CORRECT</span>. The World Economic Forum has launched a global initiative to grow, restore and conserve 1 trillion trees around the world - in a bid to restore biodiversity and help fight climate change.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black">1t.org is a World Economic Forum initiative, designed to support the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration 2021-2030, led by UNEP and FAO. 1t.org offers a platform for leading governments, businesses, civil society and ecopreneurs committed to serving the global trillion trees community.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<div class="O1" style="margin-top:7px; margin-left:28px; text-indent:-.29in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial">•</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">Note: </span>Trillion Trees is a joint venture between three of the world's largest conservation organizations - Birdlife International, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and WWF - to end deforestation and restore tree cover.</span></span> </span></span></span></span></div>

<p style="margin-top:13px; margin-left:131px; text-indent:-1.37in; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:16px;"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="unicode-bidi:embed"><span style="word-break:normal"><span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><span style="font-weight:bold">&nbsp;&nbsp; Source:&nbsp; </span><a href="https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/01/one-trillion-trees-world-">https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/01/one-trillion-trees-world-</a></span></span> <span style="font-family:&quot;Bookman Old Style&quot;"><span style="color:black"><a href="https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/01/one-trillion-trees-world-economic-forum-launches-plan-to-help-nature-and-the-climate/">economic-forum-launches-plan-to-help-nature-and-the-climate/</a></span></span> </span></span></span></span></p>

Answer: (a)

Option (a) is CORRECT. The World Economic Forum has launched a global initiative to grow, restore and conserve 1 trillion trees around the world - in a bid to restore biodiversity and help fight climate change.
1t.org is a World Economic Forum initiative, designed to support the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration 2021-2030, led by UNEP and FAO. 1t.org offers a platform for leading governments, businesses, civil society and ecopreneurs committed to serving the global trillion trees community.
Note: Trillion Trees is a joint venture between three of the world's largest conservation organizations - Birdlife International, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and WWF - to end deforestation and restore tree cover.

   Source:  https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/01/one-trillion-trees-world- economic-forum-launches-plan-to-help-nature-and-the-climate/