സിവില് സര്വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷ: പുതിയ വാട്ട്സ്ആപ്പ് സ്വകാര്യതാ നയതിനെതിരെ കേന്ദ്രം ഉയർത്തിയ ആശങ്കകളെന്ത് ?
ഇന്ത്യന് ബ്യൂറോക്രസിയുടെ ഏറ്റവും ഉയര്ന്ന പദവികളിലേക്കുള്ള പരീക്ഷയായ സിവില് സര്വ്വീസ് പരീക്ഷയ്ക്കായി ഏഷ്യാനെറ്റ് ഓണ്ലൈനും അമൃത ഐഎഎസ് അക്കാദമിയും ചേര്ന്നൊരുക്കുന്ന ചോദ്യമാതൃകയുടെ അമ്പത്തിരണ്ടാമത് ഭാഗം.
Article 16 (4): Provides that the State can make any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favor of any backward class of citizens who, in the opinion of the state, are not adequately represented in the services under the State.
Article 16 (4A): Provides that the State can make any provision for reservation in matters of promotion in favor of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes if they are not adequately represented in the services under the State. It was inserted by the 77th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1995. Hence statement 1 is incorrect. The term ‘Creamy layer’ was first mentioned in the Supreme Court’s landmark judgment in the Indra Sawhney case (1992).
This term is used to describe some members of a backward class who are socially, economically as well as educationally advanced as compared to the rest of the members of that community. They lap up all the benefits of reservations meant for that class, without allowing benefits to reach the truly backward members of that class.
Reaffirming its stand in the Nagraj case, the Supreme Court in 2020 ruled that reservation in the matter of promotions in public posts is not a fundamental right, and a state cannot be compelled to offer the quota if it chooses not to.
All-or-nothing approach: Government has objected to the all-or-nothing approach of WhatsApp. This approach forces users to accept the new service terms and privacy policies, without giving them an option to opt-out.
Supreme Court Judgments: The government has reminded WhatsApp about the Putta Swamy vs. Union of India(2017) judgment where the Supreme Court has ruled that the Fundamental Right to Privacy is intrinsic to life and liberty and comes under Article 21 of the Indian constitution.
Vulnerable (VU), a category containing those species that possess a very high risk of extinction as a result of rapid population declines of 30 to more than 50 percent over the previous 10 years (or three generations).
The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), the statutory organization, was constituted in September 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
Further, CPCB was entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
It functions under the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate change.
Some important function of Central Pollution Control Board,
o To promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution, and
o To improve the quality of air and to prevent, control, or abate air pollution in the country.
o Co-ordinate the activities of the State Board and resolve disputes among them;
o Provide technical assistance and guidance to the state board,carry out and sponsor research and investigation, relating to the problem of air and water pollution
o It is responsible for the enforcement of hazardous waste (Management and Handling Rule) 1989.
Statement 1 is correct: According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) report, India is among the countries that have witnessed a positive growth rate in FDI equity inflows in 2020 as compared to 2019.
Statement 2 is incorrect: Mauritius is the top investing country with 24 percent equity inflows in April. It is followed by Singapore, which continues to be one of the top sources of FDI for India with 21 percent inflows. Japan ranked third with 11 percent of FDI inflows.
Statement 3 is incorrect: India has seen a growth of 25 percent in 2020 as compared to 2019. India is the 5th largest recipient of FDI inflow in the world in 2020. India’s FDI inflow increases 38% to $6.24 billion in April 2021. As far as the states are concerned, Karnataka is the top recipient state with a 31 percent share in the total FDI equity inflows during April 2021, followed by Maharashtra at 19 percent and Delhi at 15 percent. Computer software and hardware remain the top sector for FDI, followed by 23 percent in the service sector and 8 percent in the education sector, respectively.
Statement 1 is correct: National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA) is an independent regulator to oversee the auditing profession and accounting standards in India under the Companies Act 2013.
Statement 2 is correct: The Companies Act, 2013 gave the regulatory framework for its composition and constitution.
Statement 3 is correct: The establishment of NFRA as an independent regulator for the auditing profession improved the transparency and reliability of financial statements and information presented by listed companies and large unlisted companies in India.
The Lombok Strait is a strait connecting the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean and is located between the islands of Bali and Lombok in Indonesia. The Gili Islands are on the Lombok side.
Statement 1 is correct: The Sun’s corona is the outermost part of the Sun’s atmosphere. The corona is usually hidden by the bright light of the Sun's surface. That makes it difficult to see without using special instruments. However, the corona can be viewed during a total solar eclipse.
Statement 2 is correct: The corona extends far out into space. From it comes the solar wind that travels through our solar system. The corona's temperature causes its particles to move at very high speeds. These speeds are so high that the particles can escape the Sun's gravity.
Statement 3 is correct: It emits ultra-violet and X-ray wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Corona consists of ionized gas at temperatures exceeding one million Kelvin, which is much higher than the photospheric temperature of 6000K, the visible surface temperature of the Sun.
The spirit of reform embraced almost the whole of India beginning with the efforts of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in Bengal leading to the formation of the BrahmoSamaj in 1828.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy considered different religions as national embodiments of universal theism. The BrahmoSamaj was initially conceived by him as a universalist church. He was a defender of the basic and universal principles of all religions - the monotheism of the Vedas and the Unitarianism of Christianity and at the same time attacked polytheism and idolatry of Hinduism and the trinitarianism of Christianity.
Swami Dayananda Saraswati founder of AryaSamaj gave the slogan - Go back to the Vedas.
Brihat-Samhita is considered to be one of the most important contributions of Varahamihira.
This epic consists of a wide range of subjects comprising of human interest, including astrology, planetary movements, eclipses, rainfall, clouds, growth of crops, manufacture of perfume, matrimony, and domestic relation.
It contains 106 chapters and is known as the ‘great compilation’.